[Update] Arctic | Definition, Climate, People, & Facts | arctic – Pickpeup

arctic: นี่คือโพสต์ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับหัวข้อนี้

It is evident that the polar landmasses have been transported on lithospheric plates through geologic time and that their positions relative to each other and to the North Pole have changed, with significant modification to ocean circulation and to climate. Motion of plates in the Paleogene and Neogene periods (about 65.5 million to 2.6 million years ago) led to igneous activity in two regions. One was associated with mountain building around the North Pacific, and active volcanoes are still found in Kamchatka, the Aleutian Islands , and Alaska. The other area of igneous activity extended across the North Atlantic and included the whole of Iceland , Jan Mayen Island, and east Greenland south of Scoresby Sound; it was probably connected to west Greenland north of Disko Bay and to east Baffin Island . Volcanism continues in Iceland and on Jan Mayen, and hot springs are found in Greenland.

In the sectors between the shields, there have been long periods of marine sedimentation , and consequently the shields are partly buried. In some areas thick sediments were subsequently folded, thus producing mountains, many of which have since been destroyed by erosion. Two main orogenies (mountain-building periods) have been recognized in the Arctic. In Paleozoic times (about 542 million to 251 million years ago) there developed a complex mountain system that includes both Caledonian and Hercynian elements . It extends from the Queen Elizabeth Islands through Peary Land and along the east coast of Greenland. Mountain building occurred during the same period in Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya , the northern Urals, the Taymyr Peninsula , and Severnaya Zemlya . There is considerable speculation as to how these mountains are linked beneath the sea. The second orogeny occurred during the Mesozoic (251 million to 65.5 million years ago) and Cenozoic (the past 65.5 million years) eras. These mountains survive in northeastern Siberia and Alaska. Horizontal or lightly warped sedimentary rocks cover part of the shield in northern Canada , where they are preserved in basins and troughs. Sedimentary rocks are even more extensive in northern Russia and in western and central Siberia, where they range in age from early Paleozoic to Quaternary (the past 2.6 million years).

The Arctic lands have developed geologically around four nuclei of ancient crystalline rocks. The largest of these, the Canadian Shield , underlies all the Canadian Arctic except for part of the Queen Elizabeth Islands . It is separated by Baffin Bay from a similar shield area that underlies most of Greenland. The Baltic (or Scandinavian) Shield, centred on Finland , includes all of northern Scandinavia (except the Norwegian coast) and the northwestern corner of Russia . The two other blocks are smaller. The Angaran Shield is exposed between the Khatanga and Lena rivers in north-central Siberia and the Aldan Shield is exposed in eastern Siberia.

Continental ice sheets of the past

Little is known about the climate of the northern lands in early Cenozoic times; it is possible that the tree line was at least 1,000 miles farther north than at present. During the Cenozoic, however, the polar lands became cooler and permanent land ice formed, first in the Alaskan mountain ranges and subsequently, by the end of the Pliocene (2.6 million years ago), in Greenland. By the onset of the Quaternary Period, glaciers were widespread in northern latitudes. Throughout the Quaternary, continental-scale ice sheets expanded and decayed on at least eight occasions in response to major climatic oscillations in high latitudes. Detailed information available for the final glaciation (80,000 to 10,000 years ago) indicates that in North America the main ice sheet developed on Baffin Island and swept south and west across Canada, amalgamating with smaller glaciers to form the Laurentide Ice Sheet, covering much of the continent between the Atlantic Ocean and the Rocky Mountains and between the Arctic Ocean and the Ohio and Missouri river valleys. A smaller ice cap formed in the Western Cordillera. The northern margin of the ice lay along the Brooks Range (excluding the Yukon Basin) and across the southern islands of the Canadian Archipelago. To the north the Queen Elizabeth Islands supported small, probably thin, ice caps. Glacier ice from Greenland crossed Nares Strait to reach Ellesmere Island during maximum glaciation.

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The Atlantic Arctic islands were covered with ice except where isolated mountain peaks (nunataks) projected through the ice. In Europe the Scandinavian Ice Sheet covered most of northern Europe between Severnaya Zemlya in Russia and the British Isles. Northeastern Siberia escaped heavy glaciation, although, as in northern Canada, the ice sheet had been more extensive in an earlier glaciation.

As the ice sheets melted, unique landforms developed by the ice were revealed. Although not restricted to the present Arctic, they are often prominent there and, in the absence of forests, are clearly visible. In areas of crystalline rocks, including large parts of the northern Canadian Shield and Finland, the ice left disarranged drainage and innumerable lakes. In the lowlands deep glacial deposits filled eroded surfaces and produced a smoother landscape, often broken by low ridges and hills of glacial material, drumlins, rogen (ribbed) moraines, and eskers. In the uplands the characteristic glacial landforms are U-shaped valleys. Near the polar coasts these have been submerged to produce fjords, which are well developed in southern Alaska, along the east coast of Canada, around Greenland, in east and west Iceland, along the coast of Norway, and on many of the Arctic islands.

Because of their enormous weight, continental ice sheets depress the Earth’s crust. As the ice sheets melted at the close of the Pleistocene Epoch (11,700 years ago), the land slowly recovered its former altitude, but before this was completed the sea flooded the coastal areas. Subsequent emergence has elevated marine beaches and sediments to considerable heights in many parts of the Arctic, where their origin is easily recognized from the presence of marine shells, the skeletons of sea mammals, and driftwood. The highest strandlines are found 500 to 900 feet above contemporary sea level in many parts of the western and central Canadian Arctic and somewhat lower along the Baffin Bay and Labrador coasts. Comparable emergence is found on Svalbard, Greenland, the northern Urals, and on the Franz Josef Archipelago, where it reaches more than 1,500 feet. In many emerged lowlands, such as those south and west of Hudson Bay, the raised beaches are the most conspicuous features in the landscape, forming hundreds of low, dry, gravel ridges in the otherwise ill-drained plains. Emergence is still continuing, and in parts of northern Canada and northern Sweden uplift of two to three feet a century has occurred during the historical period. In contrast, a few Arctic coasts, notably around the Beaufort Sea, are experiencing submergence at the present time.

Polar continental shelves in areas that escaped glaciation during the ice ages were exposed during periods of low sea level, especially in the Bering Strait and Sea (Beringia), which facilitated migration of people to North America from Asia, and in the Laptev and East Siberian seas.


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นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูความรู้เพิ่มเติมที่นี่

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Arctic Monkeys – Do I Wanna Know? (Official Video)


Arctic Monkeys ‘Do I Wanna Know?’ from ‘AM’, released 2013 on Domino Recording Co.
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Arctic Monkeys’ new album ‘Tranquility Base Hotel \u0026 Casino’ is out now on Domino Record Co. Buy \u0026 listen: http://smarturl.it/TranquilityBase
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Arctic Monkeys - Do I Wanna Know? (Official Video)

Tour of the Arctic (2/2) – from Greenland to Alaska | DW Documentary


Two film crews explore the spectacular wilderness of the Arctic. The people who live there face dramatic changes. Part two takes viewers from East Greenland to Alaska.
The region around the North Pole is one of the greatest and leastknown wildernesses in the world and it’s rapidly changing due to global warming. 350 people, most of them Inuit, live in Ittoqqortoormiit in Greenland. The nearest settlement is on neighboring Iceland. Almost 800 kilometers of Arctic Ocean separate the two islands. The film team accompanies an Inuit family through Scoresby Sound, a fjord system on the eastern coast of Greenland. They travel hundreds of kilometers in small boats through pack ice, passing icebergs as high as skyscrapers. On the way they meet whalers who are hunting for narwhals in summer. In this Inuit culture, narwhal skin and polar bear goulash have ensured survival for thousands of years. Greenpeace and WWF activists want to stop whaling and polar bear hunting but this poses a threat to the indigenous way of life on Greenland. On the expedition through the world’s largest fjord system, the team learns about the consequences of global warming: melting permafrost and a rapid increase in greenhouse gases. The changes are worrying. Some say they have brought benefits to the far north — the ice breaks up earlier and so too does the hunting season. However, the risks outweigh this benefit. The knowledge and way of life that have been passed down from generation to generation may soon be unsustainable.

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Tour of the Arctic (2/2) – from Greenland to Alaska | DW Documentary

Ludovico Einaudi – \”Elegy for the Arctic\” – Official Live (Greenpeace)


Subscribe to the official Ludovico Einaudi channel here!
http://bit.ly/EinaudiChannel
Ludovico Einaudi performs an original piece \”Elegy for the Arctic\”, on the Arctic Ocean to call for its protection, on June 17th, 2016
 With a grand piano on a floating platform in front of a glacier, Einaudi played an original piece composed for the cause
 The acclaimed composer has turned into music the voices of the eight million people that asks for Arctic protection
 With this action, Greenpeace is urging the OSPAR Commission not to miss the opportunity to protect international Arctic waters under its mandate at this week’s meeting in Tenerife
Through his music, acclaimed Italian composer and pianist Ludovico Einaudi has added his voice to those of eight million people from across the world demanding protection for the Arctic.
Einaudi performed one of his own compositions on a floating platform in the middle of the Ocean, against the backdrop of the Wahlenbergbreen glacier (in Svalbard, Norway).
Travelling on board Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise on the eve of a significant event for the future of the Arctic: this week’s meeting of the OSPAR Commission, which could secure the first protected area in Arctic international waters.
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Ludovico Einaudi - \

Most Dangerous Ice Roads in Canada | Highway to the Arctic | Free Documentary


Highway to the Arctic: Canada’s Ice Roads
World’s Most Dangerous Roads | The Canadian Ice Roads: https://youtu.be/UCkhwkZvCJw
Every winter, ice roads are built across hundreds of miles in Canada’s far north, connecting frozen rivers and lakes, and stretching up to the very northern tip of the country by the Arctic Ocean. For the people living in the remote villages of this region these “ice highways” are of vital importance. Until April, trucks are coming up here all the way from down south, bringing supply goods for the whole year to these locals, and life changes until the ice roads are melting again and disappearing into the ocean.
For decades, ice roads have been built across the icy tundra in Canada’s far north, the Northwest Territories, every single winter. These socalled \”ice highways\” lead to a remote and inhospitable world impresses everyone with its raw beauty. It is a cold primeval world, almost unimaginable for Europeans these days, yet people are actually living there. The locals, who have settled in remote villages up here, have adjusted to the Arctic nature; the ice roads are their temporary connection to the outside world. While life in summertime can be tough and arduous, winter allows the locals to replenish their stocks, easily reach remote hunting grounds and turns the ice roads into a place for fairs where people can celebrate life and their culture.
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Most Dangerous Ice Roads in Canada | Highway to the Arctic | Free Documentary

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูบทความเพิ่มเติมในหมวดหมู่Music of Turkey

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