[NEW] The forgotten history of how automakers invented the crime of “jaywalking” | jaywalking – Pickpeup

jaywalking: นี่คือโพสต์ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับหัวข้อนี้

A hundred years ago, if you were a pedestrian, crossing the street was simple: You walked across it.

Today, if there’s traffic in the area and you want to follow the law, you need to find a crosswalk. And if there’s a traffic light, you need to wait for it to change to green.

In the 1920s, auto groups redefined who owned the city street

Fail to do so, and you’re committing a crime: jaywalking. In some cities — Los Angeles, for instance — police ticket tens of thousands of pedestrians annually for jaywalking, with fines of up to $250.

To most people, this seems part of the basic nature of roads. But it’s actually the result of an aggressive, forgotten 1920s campaign led by auto groups and manufacturers that redefined who owned the city streets.

“In the early days of the automobile, it was drivers’ job to avoid you, not your job to avoid them,” says Peter Norton, a historian at the University of Virginia and author of . “But under the new model, streets became a place for cars — and as a pedestrian, it’s your fault if you get hit.”

One of the keys to this shift was the creation of the crime of jaywalking. Here’s a history of how that happened.

When city streets were a public space

It’s strange to imagine now, but prior to the 1920s, city streets looked dramatically different than they do today. They were considered to be a public space: a place for pedestrians, pushcart vendors, horse-drawn vehicles, streetcars, and children at play.

“Pedestrians were walking in the streets anywhere they wanted, whenever they wanted, usually without looking,” Norton says. During the 1910s there were few crosswalks painted on the street, and they were generally ignored by pedestrians.

As cars began to spread widely during the 1920s, the consequence of this was predictable: death. Over the first few decades of the century, the number of people killed by cars skyrocketed.

Those killed were mostly pedestrians, not drivers, and they were disproportionately the elderly and children, who had previously had free rein to play in the streets.

The public response to these deaths, by and large, was outrage. Automobiles were often seen as frivolous playthings, akin to the way we think of yachts today (they were often called “pleasure cars”). And on the streets, they were considered violent intruders.

Cities erected prominent memorials for children killed in traffic accidents, and newspapers covered traffic deaths in detail, usually blaming drivers. They also published cartoons demonizing cars, often associating them with the Grim Reaper.

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Before formal traffic laws were put in place, judges typically ruled that in any collision, the larger vehicle — that is, the car — was to blame. In most pedestrian deaths, drivers were charged with manslaughter regardless of the circumstances of the accident.

How cars took over the roads

As deaths mounted, anti-car activists sought to slow them down. In 1920, Illustrated World wrote, “Every car should be equipped with a device that would hold the speed down to whatever number of miles stipulated for the city in which its owner lived.”

The turning point came in 1923, says Norton, when 42,000 Cincinnati residents signed a petition for a ballot initiative that would require all cars to have a governor limiting them to 25 miles per hour. Local auto dealers were terrified, and sprang into action, sending letters to every car owner in the city and taking out advertisements against the measure.

The measure failed. It also galvanized auto groups nationwide, showing them that if they weren’t proactive, the potential for automobile sales could be minimized.

In response, automakers, dealers, and enthusiast groups worked to legally redefine the street — so that pedestrians, rather than cars, would be restricted.

“This is the traffic law that we’re still living with today”

The idea that pedestrians shouldn’t be permitted to walk wherever they liked had been present as far back as 1912, when Kansas City passed the first ordinance requiring them to cross streets at crosswalks. But in the mid-20s, auto groups took up the campaign with vigor, passing laws all over the country.

Most notably, auto industry groups took control of a series of meetings convened by Herbert Hoover (then secretary of commerce) to create a model traffic law that could be used by cities across the country. Due to their influence, the product of those meetings — the 1928 Model Municipal Traffic Ordinance — was largely based off traffic law in Los Angeles, which had enacted strict pedestrian controls in 1925.

“The crucial thing it said was that pedestrians would cross only at crosswalks, and only at right angles,” Norton says. “Essentially, this is the traffic law that we’re still living with today.”

The shaming of jaywalking

Even while passing these laws, however, auto industry groups faced a problem: In Kansas City and elsewhere, no one had followed the rules, and they were rarely enforced by police or judges. To solve it, the industry took up several strategies.

One was an attempt to shape news coverage of car accidents. The National Automobile Chamber of Commerce, an industry group, established a free wire service for newspapers: Reporters could send in the basic details of a traffic accident and would get in return a complete article to print the next day. These articles, printed widely, shifted the blame for accidents to pedestrians — signaling that following these new laws was important.

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Similarly, AAA began sponsoring school safety campaigns and poster contests, crafted around the importance of staying out of the street. Some of the campaigns also ridiculed kids who didn’t follow the rules — in 1925, for instance, hundreds of Detroit school children watched the “trial” of a 12-year-old who’d crossed a street unsafely, and, as Norton writes, a jury of his peers sentenced him to clean chalkboards for a week.

This was also part of the final strategy: shame. In getting pedestrians to follow traffic laws, “the ridicule of their fellow citizens is far more effective than any other means which might be adopted,” said E.B. Lefferts, the head of the Automobile Club of Southern California in the 1920s. Norton likens the resulting campaign to the anti-drug messaging of the ’80s and ’90s, in which drug use was portrayed as not only dangerous but stupid.

Auto campaigners lobbied police to publicly shame transgressors by whistling or shouting at them — and even carrying women back to the sidewalk — instead of quietly reprimanding or fining them. They staged safety campaigns in which actors dressed in 19th-century garb, or as clowns, were hired to cross the street illegally, signifying that the practice was outdated and foolish. In a 1924 New York safety campaign, a clown was marched in front of a slow-moving Model T and rammed repeatedly.

This strategy also explains the name that was given to crossing illegally on foot: jaywalking. During this era, the word “jay” meant something like “rube” or “hick” — a person from the sticks, who didn’t know how to behave in a city. So pro-auto groups promoted use of the word “jay walker” as someone who didn’t know how to walk in a city, threatening public safety.

At first, the term was seen as offensive, even shocking. Pedestrians fired back, calling dangerous driving “jay driving.”

But jaywalking caught on (and eventually became one word). Safety organizations and police began using it formally, in safety announcements.

Ultimately, both the word jaywalking and the concept that pedestrians shouldn’t walk freely on streets became so deeply entrenched that few people know this history. “The campaign was extremely successful,” Norton says. “It totally changed the message about what streets are for.”

Further reading:


I CAN’T VLOG | VLOG – 1 [ JAYWALKING]


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https://www.instagram.com/jayjajal/?hl=en
Website : https://www.jaywalking.in/

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I CAN’T VLOG | VLOG - 1 [ JAYWALKING]

The Mainstreet Podcast Ep. 2 ft. @JAYWALKING


The Mainstreet Podcast is a sneaker show featuring hosts Vedant Lamba and Krishen Riyat. In this episode, they are joined by the one and only Mr. Jaywalking.
Subscribe to MainstreetTv to keep up with all the info and more episodes.

Follow Krishen: https://www.instagram.com/krishenriyat/
Follow Vedant: https://www.instagram.com/vedulamba/
Follow Jay Jajal: https://www.instagram.com/jaywalking.in/
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Follow the Marketplace: https://www.instagram.com/marketplacebymainstreet/
Shop online now : www.marketplace.mainstreet.co.in
mainstreet mainstreetpodcast
jaywalking

The Mainstreet Podcast Ep. 2 ft. @JAYWALKING

The Origin of…Jaywalking


Join as as we take a stroll and find out when this popular saying hit the ground running.
Host: eddiebowley.com / Animator: Caitlin Cooke / Background Artist: Caitlin Cooke

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The Origin of…Jaywalking

성준 – 무단횡단 (닥치고 꽃미남 밴드 OST Part 2)


‘닥꽃밴’ 성준, 노래까지 완벽 대체 못하는 게 뭐야?
tvN 드라마 ‘닥치고 꽃미남밴드’ OST Part 2 ‘무단횡단’ 공개
성준 ‘무한횡단’ 폭풍 카리스마에 걸맞은 가창력으로 화제
tvN ‘닥치고 꽃미남밴드’에서 폭풍 카리스마로 떠오르고 있는 성준이 부른 ‘무단횡단’이 오는 13일 0시 공개된다.
tvN 월화드라마 ‘닥치고 꽃미남밴드’ (극본 : 서윤희, 연출 : 이권, 제작: 오보이 프로젝트)는 꽃보다 아름답지만 한없이 거친 꽃미남들이 뭉친 고등학교 록밴드 ‘안구정화’를 중심으로, 패기 넘치는 청춘들의 우정과 사랑, 음악에 대한 열정을 그린 16부작 청춘 로맨스 드라마다.
극 중 ‘안구정화’의 리더 이민기의 죽음으로 새 리더를 맡게 되며 중인 성준은 지난 6일 방송된 3회에서 록 페스티벌 참여곡으로 ‘무단횡단’을 짧게 선보여 많은 관심을 불러일으킨 바 있다. 성준의 가창력은 기존에 알려진 바 없어 시청자들을 더욱 깜짝 놀라게 했으며, 여심을 사로잡는 카리스마와 더불어 숨겨놓은 의외의 노래실력으로 ‘못하는게 뭐냐’ ‘진정한 엄친아’와 같은 호평을 받고 있다.
‘닥치고 꽃미남밴드’의 주제가기도 한 ‘무단횡단’은 복고적인 셔플 리듬과 현대적인 기타 이펙터의 조합에 성준의 매력적인 중저음이 어우러진 곡이다. 밴드 ‘안구정화’의 반항적이고 마초적인 느낌을 살린 가사와 강렬한 사운드로 본격적으로 드라마가 전개되며 ‘안구정화’의 테마곡으로 계속해서 등장할 예정이다.
특히 영화 ‘미녀는 괴로워”국가대표’의 명품 영화음악으로 화제가 된 이재학 음악감독이 ‘닥치고 꽃미남밴드’의 전체 음악을 맡으며 이번 타이틀곡 ‘무단횡단’을 직접 작사•작곡하여 눈길을 끈다. 이재학 음악감독은 \”성준은 기대 이상의 가창력과 곡 소화력으로 많은 이들을 놀라게 했다. 앞으로 드라마가 본격 전개되며 성준을 포함한 안구정화 멤버들의 스토리를 음악을 통해 표현할 것\”이라고 밝혔다.
한편, 안구정화 멤버들의 고군분투 성장기를 그리고 있는 ‘닥치고 꽃미남밴드’는 연일 시청률 상승세를 이어가고 있으며, 이민기 비롯 출연진들이 참여하는 ‘닥치고 꽃미남밴드’ OST는 매주 월요일 0시 연속 발매된다.

CJ E\u0026M Music은 아시아 No.1 엔터테인먼트 기업인 CJ E\u0026M의 음악사업 브랜드로 음원/음반의 투자•제작•유통부터 콘서트•페스티벌 개최까지 포함하고 있습니다.
CJ E\u0026M MUSIC과 함께 하는 KPOP 아티스트들의 신곡과 뮤직비디오, 미공개 독점 영상 등을 이곳 YOUTUBE 채널에서 가장 먼저 만나보세요!

SungJoon’s ‘JAYWALKING’
The most powerful and charismatic vocal, SungJoon, is having a spotlight on him! Shut Up Flower Boy Band’s theme song ‘Jaywalking’ is composed by Lee JaeHak, the music director, and he said, \”SungJun has more than what I have expected. His vocal is just amazing.\”
This song can be described as the collaboration of shuffle rhythm and modern guitar sound. As the drama goes on, SungJun and his band members are going to tell their story through the music.

CJ E\u0026M Music is a music business brand of CJ E\u0026M, Asia’s No.1 entertainment company. CJ E\u0026M Music covers investment, production and distribution of album and also provides the best music festival and concerts. Meet the KPOP artists’ brand new music videos and exclusive video clips on the official YouTube of CJ E\u0026M Music.
Wanna know more about your favorite Kpop artist?
Visit http://global.mnet.com

성준 - 무단횡단 (닥치고 꽃미남 밴드 OST Part 2)

Jaywalking (Sung Joon) OST Shut Up Flower Boy Band – Rom + Esp


El ost de este dorama, lo encontré buenísimo 😀

Jaywalking (Sung Joon) OST Shut Up Flower Boy Band - Rom + Esp

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูวิธีอื่นๆMusic of Turkey

ขอบคุณที่รับชมกระทู้ครับ jaywalking

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