[NEW] fall of Constantinople | Facts, Summary, & Significance | constantinople – Pickpeup

constantinople: คุณกำลังดูกระทู้

Fall of Constantinople , (May 29, 1453), conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire . The dwindling Byzantine Empire came to an end when the Ottomans breached Constantinople’s ancient land wall after besieging the city for 55 days. Mehmed surrounded Constantinople from land and sea while employing cannon to maintain a constant barrage of the city’s formidable walls. The fall of the city removed what was once a powerful defense for Christian Europe against Muslim invasion, allowing for uninterrupted Ottoman expansion into eastern Europe .

In the meantime, Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus entreated major powers in Christendom to aid him in the impending siege. Hungary refused to assist, and, instead of sending men, Pope Nicholas V saw the precarious situation as an opportunity to push for the reunification of the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, a priority of the papacy since 1054. Orthodox leaders voted in favour of union, but the people of Constantinople were adamantly against it and rioted in response. Military support came from Venice and Genoa. An Ottoman attack on a Venetian ship in the Bosporus prompted the Venetian Senate to send 800 troops and 15 galleys to the Byzantine capital, and many Venetians presently in Constantinople also chose to support the war effort, but the bulk of the Venetian forces were delayed for too long to be of any help. For Genoa’s part, the city-state sent 700 soldiers to Constantinople, all of whom arrived in January 1453 with Giovanni Giustiniani Longo at their head. Emperor Constantine XI named Giustiniani commander of his land defenses and spent the rest of the winter strengthening the city for a siege.

Now sultan for the second time, Mehmed II intended to complete his father’s mission and conquer Constantinople for the Ottomans. In 1452 he reached peace treaties with Hungary and Venice. He also began the construction of the Boğazkesen (later called the Rumelihisarı ), a fortress at the narrowest point of the Bosporus , in order to restrict passage between the Black and Mediterranean seas. Mehmed then tasked the Hungarian gunsmith Urban with both arming Rumelihisarı and building cannon powerful enough to bring down the walls of Constantinople. By March 1453 Urban’s cannon had been transported from the Ottoman capital of Edirne to the outskirts of Constantinople. In April, having quickly seized Byzantine coastal settlements along the Black Sea and Sea of Marmara , Ottoman regiments in Rumelia and Anatolia assembled outside the Byzantine capital. Their fleet moved from Gallipoli to nearby Diplokionion, and the sultan himself set out to meet his army.

In contrast to the Byzantines, the Ottoman Turks had extended their control over virtually all of the Balkans and most of Anatolia , having conquered several Byzantine cities west of Constantinople in the latter half of the 14th century. Constantinople itself became an Ottoman vassal during this period. Hungary was the primary European threat to the Ottomans on land, and Venice and Genoa controlled much of the Aegean and Black seas. Sultan Murad II laid siege to Constantinople in 1422, but he was forced to lift it in order to suppress a rebellion elsewhere in the empire. In 1444 he lost an important battle to a Christian alliance in the Balkans and abdicated the throne to his son, Mehmed II. However, he returned to power two years later after defeating the Christians and remained sultan until his death in 1451.

By the mid-15th century, constant struggles for dominance with its Balkan neighbours and Roman Catholic rivals had diminished Byzantine imperial holdings to Constantinople and the land immediately west of it. Furthermore, with Constantinople having suffered through several devastating sieges, the city’s population had dropped from roughly 400,000 in the 12th century to between 40,000 and 50,000 by the 1450s. Vast open fields constituted much of the land within the walls. Byzantine relations with the rest of Europe had soured over the last several centuries as well: the Schism of 1054 and the 13th-century Latin occupation of Constantinople entrenched a mutual hatred between the Orthodox Byzantines and Roman Catholic Europe. Nevertheless, just as deeply entrenched was the understanding that Byzantine control of Constantinople was a necessary bastion against Muslim control of land and sea in the eastern Mediterranean .

Battle

In the 15th century, Constantinople’s walls were widely recognized as the most formidable in all of Europe. The land walls spanned 4 miles (6.5 km) and consisted of a double line of ramparts with a moat on the outside; the higher of the two stood as high as 40 feet (12 metres) with a base as much as 16 feet (5 metres) thick. These walls had never been breached in the thousand years since their construction. An adjoining sea wall ran along the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara, the latter section being 20 feet (6 metres) high and 5 miles (8 km) long. When combined with a large metal chain that had been drawn across the Golden Horn, Constantine was confident that the city’s defenses could repel a naval assault and withstand Mehmed’s land forces until relief came from Christian Europe. However, Constantine’s capacity to defend his city was hampered by his small fighting force. Eyewitness Jacopo Tedaldi estimates a presence of 30,000 to 35,000 armed civilians and only 6,000 to 7,000 trained soldiers. Giustiniani intended to concentrate most of these men at the land walls to the north and west, the centre of which he observed to be the most vulnerable section of the city. A small fleet of naval and armed merchant vessels were also stationed in the Golden Horn to defend the chain. However, without outside support, Constantinople’s defenders would be spread thin.

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The Ottoman besiegers vastly outnumbered the Byzantines and their allies. Between 60,000 and 80,000 soldiers fought on land, accompanied by 69 cannon. Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey commanded a fleet stationed at Diplokionion with an estimated 31 large and midsize warships alongside nearly 100 smaller boats and transports. Mehmed’s strategy was straightforward: he would use his fleet and siege lines to blockade Constantinople on all sides while relentlessly battering the walls of the city with cannon. He hoped to breach them or otherwise force a surrender before a Christian relief force could arrive.

On April 6 the Ottomans began their artillery barrage and brought down a section of the wall. They mounted a frontal assault of the land walls on April 7, but the Byzantines repelled them and were able to repair the defenses. After pausing to reposition his cannon, Mehmed reopened fire and thereafter maintained daily bombardment.

On April 12 the sultan dispatched a contingent of troops to subdue two nearby Byzantine forts and ordered Baltaoğlu to rush the chain. The fleet was twice driven back, and Baltaoğlu retreated to Diplokionion until the night of the 17th, when he moved to capture the Princes Islands southeast of the city at the same time that Mehmed’s land regiments assaulted the Mesoteichon section of the wall. Constantinople’s defenders once again held their ground, however, and Baltaoğlu’s success at the islands was irreparably marred by the revelation that three relief ships from the pope and one large Byzantine vessel had nearly reached the city unhindered. The Ottoman galleys were too short to capture the tall European warships, and, with the help of the Golden Horn fleet, the warships safely sailed past the chain. Upon hearing of his navy’s defeat, Mehmed stripped Baltaoğlu of his rank and arranged for his replacement.

Mehmed was determined to take the Golden Horn and pressure the Byzantines into submission. He angled one of his cannons such that it could strike the defenders of the chain and then began to construct an oiled wooden ramp upon which he intended to portage his smaller vessels from the Bosporus to the Golden Horn. By April 22 the ships had circumvented the chain in this way and, barring the chain itself, seized control of all the waters surrounding the city. The defenders attempted to attack the remainder of the Ottoman fleet in the Bosporus, but they were defeated.

Having encircled Constantinople in full, Mehmed continued his artillery barrage of the land walls through May 29. The Ottoman cannon created several breaches, but most were too narrow to send troops through. The city’s defenders continued to repair the walls at night and reinforced areas at the damaged Gate of St. Romanus and the Blachernae sector. In the early hours of May 29, Ottoman labourers filled the moat surrounding the city. Just before dawn, the sultan launched a coordinated artillery, infantry, and naval assault on Constantinople. Two attempts to rush the Gate of St. Romanus and the Blachernae walls were met with fierce resistance, and the Ottoman soldiers were forced to fall back. Mehmed ordered a third attack on the gate, this time with one of his own palace regiments of 3,000 Janissaries. A small group reached the top of a tower through another gate but were nearly eliminated by the defenders until Giustiniani was mortally wounded by Ottoman gunfire while on the ramparts. He was carried to the rear, and his absence sowed confusion and lowered morale among the ranks. This allowed the sultan to send in another Janissary regiment and take the inner wall at the Gate of St. Romanus.

A rout of the defenders ensued, with many of the Venetian and Genoese fighters retreating to their ships in the Golden Horn. Emperor Constantine XI is reported to have been killed while either fighting near the breach or fleeing to an escape boat. Although the sultan attempted to prevent a total sack of the city, he permitted an initial period of looting that saw the destruction of many Orthodox churches. When most of Constantinople was secure, Mehmed himself rode through the streets of the city to the great cathedral of Hagia Sophia, the largest in all of Christendom, and converted it into the mosque Ayasofya. He stopped to pray and then demanded that all further looting cease immediately. The sultan thus completed his conquest of the Byzantine capital.


2nd Battle – Fall of Constantinople in 1453


\”Fetih정복자 1453\” (English: The Conquest 1453) is a 2012 Turkish epic action film directed by Faruk Aksoy and produced by Faruk Aksoy, Servet Aksoy and Ayşe Germen. Starring Devrim Evin, İbrahim Çelikkol and Dilek Serbest, the film is based on fictionalized events surrounding the Conquest of Constantinople (now Istanbul) to the Ottoman Turks during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II.
The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital city of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on the Sunday of Pentecost, 29 May 1453.
콘스탄티노폴리스의 함락은 1453년 5월 29일 비잔티움 제국의 수도인 콘스탄티노폴리스가 오스만 제국에게 점령당한 사건을 말한다.

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นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูความรู้เพิ่มเติมที่นี่

2nd Battle - Fall of Constantinople in 1453

The Fall of Constantinople Explained in 10 Minutes


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The Fall of Constantinople Explained in 10 Minutes

Byzantine chant: Lament for Constantinople: Ο Θεός ήλθοσαν έθνη/ O Lord the heathen are come


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Fall of Constantinople, (29 May 1453). After ten centuries of wars, defeats, and victories, the Byzantine Empire came to an end when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in May 1453. The city’s fall sent shock waves throughout Christendom. It is widely quoted as the event that marked the end of the European Middle Ages.
Ο Θεός ήλθοσαν έθνη translated as ‘O God, the nations have invaded your inheritance’.
Manuel Chrysaphes, the composer of this marvellous historical piece, which has been
discovered at the beginning of the first world war, did not find more eloquent words than those of Psalm 78 in order to mourn in it the church of Aghia Sophia.
Byzantinechant LamentforConstantinople
This chant was performed by Alexander Lingas \u0026 Cappella Romana
CappellaRomana
Text in Greek:

Ὁ θεός, ἤλθοσαν ἔθνη, ἤλθοσαν, ἤλθοσαν ἔθνη
εἰς τὴν κληρονομί… εἰς τὴν κληρονομίαν σου,
ἐμίαναν τὸν ναὸν τὸν ἅγιόν σου,
ἐμίανα… χα… χα… χαν
τὸν ναὸν τὸν ἅγιόν σου, ἐμίαναν, Κύριε,
ἔθεντο τὰ θνησιμαῖ… χαῖ…α τῶν δούλων σου
βρώ… βρώματα τοῖς πετεινοῖς τοῦ οὐρανοῦ,
τὰς σάρκας τῶν ὁσίων σου τοῖς θηρίοις τῆς γῆς·
ἐξέχεαν, ἐξέχεαν, ἐξέχεαν τὸ αἷμα αὐτῶν, κύριε,
ἐξέχεαν τὸ αἷμα αὐτῶν ὡς ὕδωρ κύκλῳ Ιερουσαλημ,
καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁ θάπτων.
ἐγενήθημεν, ἐγενήθημεν ὄνειδος τοῖς γείτοσιν ἡμῶν,
μυκτηρισμὸς καὶ χλευασμὸς τοῖς κύκλῳ ἡμῶν.
ἕως πότε, κύριε – πάλιν – ἕως πότε, κύριε,
ὀργισθήσῃ εἰς τέλος,
ἐκκαυθήσεται ὡς πῦρ ὁ ζῆλός σου;
ἕως πότε, κύριε
ἔκχεον τὴν ὀργήν σου,
ἔκχεον, ἔκχεον τὴν ὀργήν σου
ἐπὶ τὰ ἔθνη τὰ μὴ γινώσκοντά σε
σε καὶ ἐπὶ βασιλείας, αἳ τὸ ὄνομά σου οὐκ ἐπεκαλέσαντο…
μὴ μνησθῇς ἡμῶν ἀνομιῶν ἀρχαίων·
ἀλλὰ βοήθησον ἡμῖν ταχὺ
καὶ ἐλέησόν ἡμᾶς.

Byzantine chant: Lament for Constantinople: Ο Θεός ήλθοσαν έθνη/ O Lord the heathen are come

TRAVIP ĐI #1: Khám phá Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ – Vùng đất giao thoa Á-Âu


MỘT VLOG TỔNG HỢP TỪ CÁC VLOG YÊU DU LỊCH CỦA KÊNH YÊU MÁY BAY
Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, đất nước nằm ở nơi nối liền hai châu lục ÁÂu, nơi chứng kiến nhiều thăng trầm lịch sử với nhiều di tích cổ xưa có niên đại hàng nghìn năm vẫn còn tồn tại đến tận ngày nay. Đến Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, tham quan các di chỉ khảo cổ lâu đời, được chạm vào một phần lịch sử, được nghe những câu chuyện kể để thấy rằng thế giới và nền văn minh con người đã có những lúc phát triển rực rỡ cách đây 2.000 đến 3.000 năm.
Đến Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, có một di tích cổ xưa mà bạn không thể không ghé thăm. Đó là thành phố cổ Ephesus. Thành phố cổ này được xây dựng từ thế kỷ thứ 10 trước CN, tức cách đây hơn 3.000 năm. Ephesus trở nên phồn thịnh sau khi nằm dưới sự cai trị của Cộng hoà La Mã vào năm 129 trước CN.
Ephesus còn nổi tiếng với ngôi đền Artemis, ngôi đền của nữ thần săn bắn. Ngôi đền được coi là 1 trong 7 kỳ quan trong thế giới cổ đại bên cạnh những công trình nổi tiếng khác như Kim Tự Tháp, Vườn treo Babylon, hải đăng Alexandria, v.v… Ngồi đền được xây dựng vào khoảng năm 550 trước CN, tức cách đây hơn 2.500 năm. Đến nay vết tích của ngôi đền không còn nhưng nó vẫn khiến Ephesus trở nên hấp dẫn với khách tham quan.
Ở phế tích Ephesus hiện nay có một con đường dốc rất ấn tượng. Người ta gọi đây là đường Curetes dẫn từ cổng Hercules đến thư viện Celsus. Đây là một trong 3 con đường chính ở phế tích Ephesus hiện tại, nơi có nhiều đài phun nước, tượng đài và các cửa hàng, nhà hàng hai bên đường.
Một trong những điểm nhấn của Ephesus là Thư viện Celsus, một công trình mang kiến trúc La Mã cổ đại. Thư viện này được hoàn thành vào khoảng năm 114 đến 117 sau CN. Thư viện Celsus được đánh giá là một trong những toà nhà ấn tượng nhất của đế chế La Mã. Đây cũng được coi là thư viện lớn thứ 3 trong thế giới cổ đại. Sau nhiều thăng trầm lịch sử, thư viện này bị phá huỷ, có lẽ là vào năm 262 sau CN. Về sau, các nhà khảo cổ khai quật được nơi này và dựng lại mặt tiền của thư viện vào những năm thập niên 70 của thế kỷ trước.
Ephesus còn có nhiều công trình hoành tráng khác như đại nhà hát hình vòng cung với sức chứa khoảng 25.000 người.
Con đường dẫn từ thư viện Celsus đến đại nhà hát được gọi là Mable Road hay con đường cẩm thạch. Con đường lát đá này và kiến trúc của nó cũng giúp bạn mường tượng được khung cảnh thành phố xa xưa. Trên mặt đường còn có những phiến đá khắc hình vẽ mà người ta tin rằng đó là hình thức quảng cáo đầu tiên trên thế giới. Tấm đá khắc hình một bàn chân, một ngón tay chỉ hướng, có hình đầu một người phụ nữ và hình trái tim. Người ta cho rằng đây là nội dung quảng cáo một nhà thổ gần đó với thông điệp chỉ cần đi về hướng chỉ tay sẽ có những người phụ nữ sẵn sàng dâng hiến tình yêu.
Ephesus được nói bị phá huỷ bởi người Goth vào năm 263 sau CN và mặc dù được xây dựng lại, tầm quan trọng về thương mại của thành phố này bị giảm dần khi hải cảng bị con sông Küçükmenderes bồi lấp dần. Nó cũng bị phá huỷ một phần trong trận động đất năm 614 sau CN.
Ephesus sau đó bị lãng quên cho đến tận năm 1863, hoạt động khai quật được tiến hành bởi một kiến trúc sư người Anh đi tìm dấu vết của đền thờ thần Artemis. Cho đến nay, người ta ước tính mới chỉ khai quật được khoảng 20% phế tích của thành phố cổ Ephesus.
Thành cố Ephesus có lẽ là di chỉ khảo cổ đáng giá nhất để đến tham quan tại Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ.
Một di tích cổ khác mà chắc hẳn nhiều người sẽ tò mò. Đó là thành Troy, hay còn được biết đến với tên thành Tơroa trong một số tài liệu. Troy gắn liền với câu chuyện về cuộc chiến thành Troy kéo dài 10 năm và con ngựa thành Troy, nơi mà quân Hy Lạp núp bên trong để lọt vào thành, đánh bại thành Troy bất khả xâm phạm trong 10 năm trước đó.
Cuộc chiến thành Troy diễn ra vào khoảng thế kỷ thứ 12 hay 13 trước CN và cho đến tận giữa thế kỷ 19 người ta vẫn cho rằng Troy chỉ tồn tại trong truyền thuyết. Đến năm 1868, nhà khảo cổ người Đức đã tiến hành khai quật khu vực này và tìm thấy nhiều dấu vết của thành Troy xưa kia, hiện đang nằm tại Canakkale ở Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ.
Con ngựa thành Troy không còn tồn tại đến ngày nay nhưng có nhiều phiên bản mô phỏng cỗ xe đã giúp quân Hy Lạp lọt vào thành này.
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TRAVIP ĐI #1: Khám phá Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ - Vùng đất giao thoa Á-Âu

Conquest and Fall of Constantinople – Part 6 – Second Crusade \u0026 Komnenian Restoration


Synopsis
The Crusader states are established in the aftermath of the 1st Crusade. However, the position of the Latins is not certain. In 1144 Edessa falls launching the ill fated 2nd Crusade. The Islamic world bands together and new leaders arise to contest the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Meanwhile, the Byzantine Empire enters into the time of the Komnenian Restoration, and while a high point in the history of the Eastern Empire, it would also be its very last.
0:26 The rise of Imad ad din Zengi
3:29 Second Crusade
11:43 Komnenian Restoration John II
18:07 Komnenian Restoration Manuel I
24:48 The rise of Nur ad Din
==================================
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BIBLIOGRAPHY:
\”The First Crusade\” Thomas Asbridge
\”Warriors of God\” James Reston
\”Short Hx of Byzantium\” JJ Norwich
\”1453\” Roger Crowley
===================================
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crusades byzantine history

Conquest and Fall of Constantinople - Part 6 - Second Crusade \u0026 Komnenian Restoration

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูบทความเพิ่มเติมในหมวดหมู่Music of Turkey

ขอบคุณมากสำหรับการดูหัวข้อโพสต์ constantinople

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