[NEW] Exceptions and Interrupts for the MIPS architecture | the exception – Pickpeup

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Unit 4a: Exception and Interrupt
handling in the MIPS architecture

Introduction

In this unit, you will learn how to add interrupt and exception support to your
multicycle CPU design. For additional information,
please refer section 5.6 and appendix A in the Hennessy and Patterson textbook.
Note: you will only be implementing a subset of the exception and interrupt
functionality of the MIPS architecture. Therefore, use this page as your
definitive source of information regarding this unit.

Exceptions and Interrupts defined

and are unexpected events that disrupt
the normal flow of instruction execution. An exception is an unexpected event
from within the processor. An interrupt is an unexpected event from outside the
processor. You are to implement exception and interrupt handling in your multicycle CPU design.

When an exception or interrupt occurs, the hardware begins executing code
that performs an action in response to the exception. This action may involve
killing a process, outputting a error message, communicating with an external
device, or horribly crashing the entire computer system by initiating a
“Blue Screen of Death” and halting the CPU. The instructions
responsible for this action reside in the ,
and the code that performs this action is called the .
You can think of handler code as an operating system subroutine. After the
handler code is executed, it may be possible to continue execution after the
instruction where the execution or interrupt occurred.

Exceptions: Types

For your project, there are three events that will trigger an exception: , , and .

occurs during the execution of an add, addi, or sub instruction. If the result of the computation
is too large or too small to hold in the result register, the
output of the ALU will become high during the execute state. This event
triggers an exception.

occurs when an unknown instruction is
fetched. This exception is caused by an instruction in the IR that has an
unknown opcode or an R-type instruction that has an
unknown function code.

occurs when the processor executes a syscall instruction. Syscall
instructions are used to implement operating system services (functions).

Interrupts

We also want to have to ability to service external interrupts. This is
useful if a device external to the processor needs attention. To do this, we’ll
add 2 pins to the processor. The first pin, called IRQ (interrupt request),
will be an input that will allow an external device to interrupt the processor.
Since we don’t want the processor to service any external interrupts before it
is finished executing the current instruction, we may have to make the external
device wait for several clock cycles. Because of this, we need a way to tell
the external device that we’ve serviced its interrupt. We’ll solve this problem
by adding the second pin, called IACK (interrupt acknowledge), that will be an
output. The following waveform defines the timing for external interrupt
requests.

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Figure 1: Timing diagram for external interrupts

What to do when an exception or interrupt occurs

When an exception or interrupt occurs, your processor may perform the
following actions:

  • move the current PC into
    another register, call the EPC
  • record the reason for the
    exception in the Cause register
  • automatically disable further
    interrupts or

    execptions

    from

    occuring

    , by left-shifting the Status register

  • change control (jump) to a
    hardwired exception handler address

To return from a handler, your processor may perform the following actions:

  • move the contents of the EPC
    register to the PC.
  • re-enable interrupts and
    exceptions, by right-shifting the Status register

Dealing with multiple types of exceptions and interrupts

In a situation where multiple types of exceptions and interrupts can occur,
there must be a mechanism in place where different handler code can be executed
for different types of events. In general, there are two methods for handling
this problem: and .

  1. The processor can branch to a
    certain address that begins a sequence of instructions that check the
    cause of the exception and branch to handler code for the type of
    exception encountered. This is called .
  2. The processor can branch to a
    different address for each type of exception. Each exception address is
    separated by only one word. A jump instruction is placed at each of these addresses
    that forces the processor to jump to the handler code for each type of
    exception. This method is called .

MIPS uses the first method (polled interrupts), so we’ll implement exception
handling that way. So, in our case, all exceptions will cause the processor to
jump to a “hardwired” instruction address. A sequence of instructions
starting at this address will check the cause of the exception and act
accordingly. We will set this address to 00000004 (in hex). Also, we’ll need to
use the Cause register to record the cause of the exception or interrupt before
jumping to the handler code.

Cause register

The Cause register is a 32-bit register, but only certain
fields on that register will be used. Bits 1 down to 0 will be set to describe
the cause of the last interrupt/exception. The following table codes the
interrupt/exception causes:

Number

Name

Description

00

INT

External Interrupt

01

IBUS

Instruction bus error (invalid instruction)

10

OVF

Arithmetic overflow

11

SYSCALL

System call

Disabling interrupts and exceptions

We require a way to disable interrupts and exceptions. This is necessary to
prevent exceptions and interrupts from occuring
during handler execution. In order to be able to do this, we need an additional
register that can be used to mask exception and interrupt types. This is called
the Status register.

Status register

The status register is also a 32-bit register. It too, only has certain
fields that are used by the processor. Bits 3 down to 0 will define
for the three types of interrupts/exceptions. If an interrupt/exception occurs
when its mask bit is current set to 0, then the interrupt/exception will be
ignored. The mask bits are used according to the following table:

Bit

Interrupt/exception

3

INT

2

IBUS

1

OVF

SYSCALL

Control for exceptions

You will need to add control and datapaths to
support exceptions and interrupts. When an exception or interrupt occurs, the
following must be done:

 
EPC <= PC
Cause <= (cause code for event)
Status <= Status << 4
PC <= (handler address)

To
return from an exception or datapath, the following
must be done:

 
PC <= EPC
Status <= Status >> 4

You
will also have to add control to support four additional instructions, mfc0,
mtc0, syscall, and rte.

Figure 2: Example top-level block diagram with exception handling hardware
added. Note: this design doesn’t include the Status register and doesn’t use
the Cause register the same way we are.

Additional
instructions needed

Several
instructions must be added to your instruction set in order to use the
interrupt/exception functionality of your processor. These instructions are and ,
which stand for “move from coprocessor 0” and “move from
coprocessor 0”. The new registers that facilite
interrupt and exception handling, Status, Cause, and EPC, can be accessed via
these instructions. These new instructions transfer data between the exception
registers and the general-purpose registers. Also, you will need the syscall instruction. These instructions are encoded in the
following way:

syscall

Executes
a system call. The system call number should be set in register $v0 prior to
executing the system call.

31-26

25-6

5-0

000000

001100

rfe

Return
from exception.

31-26

25

24-6

5-0

010000

1

010000

mfc0
rd, rt

Moves
data from coprocessor 0 register rt to general
purpose register rd.

31-26

25-21

20-16

15-11

10-0

010000

00000000000

mtc0
rd, rt

Moves
data from general purpose register rt to coprocessor
0 register rd.

31-26

25-21

20-16

15-11

10-0

010000

00000000000

The
following table defines coprocessor 0’s register set:

Register name

Register number

Usage

Status

12

Interrupt mask and enable bits

Cause

13

Exception type

EPC

14

Register containing the following address of the
instruction where the exception occurred

 


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CHORD SIMPLE GAMPANG (The Only Exception - Paramore) (Tutorial Gitar) Easy Chords!

How to Fix Unknown Software Exception (0xc06d007e) In Windows 10/8/7 [Tutorial]


How to Fix Unknown Software Exception (0xc06d007e) In Windows 10/8/7 [Tutorial]
Several Windows users have been reporting that they are bothered by ‘The exception unknown software exception (0xc06d007e)‘ error message. Most affected users are saying that the same message is popping up constantly and will return even if they close it conventionally or by using Task Manager. The issue is not exclusive to a certain Windows version since it’s confirmed to appear on Windows 7, Windows 8.1 and Windows 10.
Commands Shown:
sfc /scannow
DISM /Online /CleanupImage /RestoreHealth
We looked into this particular issue by analyzing various user reports and the repair strategies that are commonly being used to fix this particular error message. Based on our research, there are several different scenarios that might lead to this particular issue.
Issues addressed in this tutorial:
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This tutorial will apply for computers, laptops, desktops,and tablets running the Windows 10, Windows 8/8.1, Windows 7 operating systems.Works for all major computer manufactures (Dell, HP, Acer, Asus, Toshiba, Lenovo, Samsung).

How to Fix Unknown Software Exception (0xc06d007e) In Windows 10/8/7 [Tutorial]

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This episode is about the exception handling section of your code or exception block.
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Watch the session to get the full explanation.
See also Steven’s blog on the subject!
https://www.insum.ca/feuertip6theexceptionsectionisforexceptions/

[Feuertips Episode #6] - The exception section is for exceptions!

The Exception Audiobook


The Exception Audiobook

The Exception Audiobook

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